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Dorsal cochlear nucleus

The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN, also known as the “tuberculum acusticum“), is a cortex-like structure on the dorso-lateral surface of the brainstem. Along with the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), it forms the cochlear nucleus (CN), where all auditory nerve fibers from the cochlea form their first synapses.

The DCN differs from the ventral portion of the CN as it not only projects to the central nucleus (a subdivision) of the inferior colliculus (CIC), but also receives efferent innervation from the auditory cortex safe drinking water bottle, superior olivary complex and the inferior colliculus. The cytoarchitecture and neurochemistry of the DCN is similar to that of the cerebellum, a concept that currently is important in theories of DCN function. Thus, the DCN is thought to be involved with more complex auditory processing, rather than merely transferring information.

The pyramidal cells or giant cells are a major cell grouping of the DCN. These cells are the target of two different input systems. The first system arises from the auditory nerve, and carries acoustic information. The second set of inputs is relayed through a set of small granule cells in the cochlear nucleus. There are also a great number of neighbouring cartwheel cells. The granule cells in turn are the target of a number of different inputs, including both those involved in auditory processing and, at least in lower mammals, somatosensory inputs associated with the head usa womens soccer t shirts, the ear

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, and the jaw.

Projections from DCN principal cells form the dorsal acoustic stria, which ultimately terminate in the CIC. This projection overlaps with that of the lateral superior olive (LSO) in a well-defined manner, where they form the primary excitatory input for ICC type O units

Principal cells in the DCN have very complex frequency intensity tuning curves. Classified as cochlear nucleus type IV cells, the firing rate may be very rapid in response to a low intensity sound at one frequency and then fall below the spontaneous rate with only a small increment in stimulus frequency or intensity. The firing rate may then increase with another increment in intensity or frequency. Type IV cells are excited by wide band noise, and particularly excited by a noise-notch stimulus directly below the cell’s best frequency (BF).

While the VCN bushy cells aid in the location of a sound stimulus on the horizontal axis via their inputs to the superior olivary complex, type IV cells may participate in localization of the sound stimulus on the vertical axis. The pinna selectively amplifies frequencies, resulting in reduced sound energy at specific frequencies in certain regions of space. The complicated firing patterns of type IV cells makes them especially suited to detecting these notches, and with the combined power of these two localization systems, an ordinary person can locate where a firework explodes without the use of their eyes.

Somatosensory inputs inhibit type IV cell activity, possibly silencing their activity during head and pinna movements. While this has not been studied extensively, it may play an important role in sound source localization in elevation. A similar effect is seen in the visual system in an effect known as change blindness.

Current auditory models of the DCN employ a two-inhibitor model. Type IV cells receive excitation directly from the auditory nerve, and are inhibited by type II (vertical) cells and a wide band inhibitor (onset-c cells).

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Tracey Moffatt

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;”>AO (born 12 November 1960) is an Australian artist who primarily uses photography and video.

Born in Brisbane in 1960, she holds a degree in visual communications from the Queensland College of Art, graduating in 1982.

Tracy Moffatt has done many different films and documentaries.Tracey Moffatt focuses on Aboriginal people and the way they are understood through films. Throughout different films, aboriginals are shown as bad news and depicted in a negative light. Moffatt’s works challenges and takes a different route by uplifting Aboriginals in films and changing the ways society views them

Her works are held in the collections of the Tate, Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, National Gallery of Australia, and Art Gallery of New South Wales.

Moffatt’s first work that came to public attention was the 1989 Something more series of photographic works. Something more has been described as “iconic”.

Moffatt’s photographic series of works such as Pet Thang (1991) and Laudanum (1998) returned to the themes of Something More exploring mixed and sometimes obscure references to issues of sexuality, history, representation and race. Other series of images, notably Scarred for Life (1994) and Scarred for Life II (1999) again tackled these themes but which referenced the photojournalism and photo essays of Life magazine accompanied by captions. While the words are compelling, they don’t explain the images, indeed they tend to add to their enigmatic nature as though more information is a further dead end.

As her work progressed over the next decade, Moffatt began to explore narratives in more gothic settings. In Up in the Sky (1998) the artist’s work again used a sequential narrative but instead of using fantasy settings usa womens soccer t shirts, a story concerning Australia’s “stolen generation” – Indigenous Australian children who were taken from their families and forcibly relocated under Government policy – was enacted and performed on location in Queensland’s outback. Like Something More, Up in the sky employs the theme of race and violence, displaying a loose narrative set against the backdrop of a remote town, ‘a place of ruin’ and devastation populated by misfits and minor characters. It is one of Moffatt’s larger series of photographs and takes its visual ideas from Italian modernist cinema Accattone (1961) by Pier Paolo Pasolini. The story relies on a triangular mixed-race relationship. Of this work Moffatt stated: ‘My work is full of emotion and drama, you can get to that drama by using a narrative, and my narratives are usually very simple, but I twist it … there is a storyline, but … there isn’t a traditional beginning, middle and end.’

In 2000, Moffatt’s work was amongst those by eight individual or collaborative groups of Indigenous Australian artists included in a major exhibition of Australian Indigenous art held in the prestigious Nicholas Hall at the Hermitage Museum in Russia. The exhibition received a positive reception from Russian critics, one of whom wrote:

This is an exhibition of contemporary art, not in the sense that it was done recently, but in that it is cased in the mentality, technology and philosophy of radical art of the most recent times. No one, other than the Aborigines of Australia, has succeeded in exhibiting such art at the Hermitage.

Moffatt’s work since 2000 has retreated from specific locales and subject matter and become more explicitly concerned with fame and celebrity. Her series (2001) used images of sportspeople from the 2000 Summer Olympic Games coming fourth in their various competitions. Seeking to underline their outsider status, the images are treated so only the ignoble fourth place holder is highlighted.

2003 saw Moffatt named by Australian Art Collector magazine as one of the country’s 50 most collectible artists.

(2004) is Moffatt’s most unabashed fantasy series using painted backdrops, costumes and models (including the artist herself) to enact a soap opera like drama of doctors, nurses and pilots in a tropical setting. (2005) is a series 40 images in which the artist takes on the persona of famous women born – like the artist – under the zodiac sign of Scorpio. The series reiterates the artist’s ongoing interests in celebrity, alternate personas and constructed realities. Moffatt’s 2007 series explores the idea of ‘celebrity’ among people in her immediate social circle – family members, fellow artists, her dealer – through ‘glamorised’ renderings of their faces using computer technology, repetitive framing and bright colours.

Moffatt’s work in film and video has included short films, experimental video and a feature film. The short films rely on the stylistic genre features of experimental cinema – usually including non-realist narrative scenarios often shot on sound stages echoing her work in still photography bottled water in glass bottles. Early works such as Nice Coloured Girls and Night Cries also use sound mixes that reinforce the ‘fakeness’ of the settings and use well-worn experimental cinema devices such as audio field recordings and low tones to provide atmosphere. Her short video works such as Artist (2000) use the cut up methodology of taking images from pre-existing sources and re-editing them into ironic commentaries on the material – Artist for example providing a commentary on the cliched role of the artist in Hollywood cinema, and her Doomed (2007) – made in collaboration with the artist Gary Hillberg – a collection of scenes of destruction from disaster movies bpa free drink bottles. Her feature film Bedevil is a trio of narratives themed around spirits and hauntings.

Primarily concerned with a series of almost static vignettes, Night Cries reiterates many of Moffatt’s visual motifs from her still photography – sets, non-acting, an evocative use of sound and music. In Night Cries Moffatt’s attempts to draw ironic or romantic connotations in juxtaposition to the images and narratives, such as her use of Jimmy Little. Moffatt also makes explicit references to Australian art history, drawing parallels between Indigenous history and the recording the landscape by non-Indigenous artists by quoting artists such as Frederick McCubbin’s The Pioneer. This film was selected for official competition at the Cannes Film Festival in 1990.

Additionally, In the film night cries, Tracey reminds and displays history of the colonial past of Aboriginal people. This film makes connections between aboriginal people and their colonizers by touching on systems that were used by colonizers to harm and put Aboriginals at a disadvantage. In the film, there is a clear tension and mixed feelings between the characters, one being the white woman and the other an aboriginal woman who play adoptive mother and daughter

Shown at the 1993 Cannes Film Festival, Bedevil is composed of three self-contained narratives with recurring visual motifs. In the first story Mister Chuck Moffatt uses the character of an American soldier, in the second part Choo Choo Choo Choo railway tracks connect a series of events and in the final part Lovin’ the Spin I’m in a landlord who evicts a family from a house. The images were partly inspired by memories from her early life.

In Moffatt’s film, Heaven, footage of men getting changed in a car park near a beach is collected together, the film maker taking the position of a voyeur.

In Lip, Moffatt collates clips of black servants in Hollywood movies talking back to their ‘bosses’, attempting to expose the attitudes to race often found in mainstream cinema. Also, this film is written on two women, one white and one black. In this film, the story line shows the conflict between the white woman and the black woman who is her maid. It shows racial tensions.

Moffatt’s Artist is a collection of clips from movies and television programs that depict artists at work, at play and in the act of creation. By showing the particular bias of television and cinema to what the role of an artist apparently means to modern society, the film reflects the sometimes uninformed, sometimes humorous view of society towards artists today.

Shown at Australian art gallery in New South Wales.

at the Art Gallery of New South Wales

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